What we stick in our Mouths Matters to our Mental Health

I’ve always known ‘We are What We EAT’ but in reality many people just don’t view it this way. This includes our main stream medical professionals unfortunately. I’m not outing anyone but I do feel this is a topic that needs continued thought, study and practice. An article was brought to my attention by a good friend that I will post verbatim in this Blog. Her work is fabulous and needs more attention. Read the Article and lets start a conversation.

It was originally printed by © 2019 Guardian News & Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved. The article is as follows:

-Diet can have a significant effect on mood, say researchers.

Felice Jacka’s work showing that junk food shrinks the brain was motivated by personal experience. Growing up in Melbourne, Australia, Jacka struggled with anxiety and panic disorders; by the time she enrolled at art school, she was accustomed to regular bouts of depression, too, leaving her “devoid of happy feelings and unable to experience pleasure”.

But in her late 20s Jacka managed to recover and stay well by focusing on her diet, exercise and sleep. The effect was so marked that it inspired her to put her life as an artist on hold in order to dedicate herself to studying the effects of diet on mental health.

She is now head of the Food and Mood Centre at Deakin University in Australia, and president of the International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry – a relatively new field of research, applying a rare scientific rigour to the link between diet and mental health. For her PhD study in 2010, Jacka found that women whose diets were higher in vegetables, fruit, fish and wholegrains, with moderate amounts of red meat, were less likely to have depression or anxiety disorders than those who consumed a typical western diet of processed foods, pizza, chips, burgers, white bread and sweet drinks.

Her study made the cover of the American Journal of Psychiatry; shortly afterwards, studies in Spain and the UK identified similar trends. Today Jacka is at the forefront of nutritional psychiatry, studying large samples of populations for indications of the impact of entire diets (not individual ingredients) on mental health. Correlations cannot prove causality outright, but by replicating results repeatedly, risk factors can be identified and studied further. Her new book, Brain Changer, is a straight-talking, evidence-based antidote (complete with recipe ideas for good mental health) to the bloggers and self-styled dietary experts who, she says, have “brought nutrition research into disrepute”.

“When I first started, people were terribly sceptical – they thought it was just rubbish,” says Jacka. “In psychiatry, people are trained to think about particular molecules in the brain that can be targeted by certain drugs and they’ve lost sight of the bigger picture – the body as a whole complex system.”

More than 150 peer-reviewed scientific papers later, Jacka has amassed evidence from all over the world showing that “what we stick in our mouths matters to our mental health”.

For her so-called Smiles trial, published in 2017, Jacka recruited 67 moderate to severely depressed people with unhealthy diets. Half received seven sessions with a clinical dietician while the others received “social support”, involving friendly conversation. After 12 weeks, one-third of those who had received nutritional support were in remission, compared with 8% of those who had had the social support. Scientifically speaking, says Jacka, “it was a pretty big difference”.

She is keen to snuff out fanciful ideas about quick fixes, and food trends dressed up as panaceas – the success resulted not from “clean eating” or coconut oil, but from following standard advice for a healthy, balanced diet. As an added bonus, the participants spent a little less on food than they did on their original diets – and probably ended up with bigger brains, too. In a 2015 study of 250 older Australians, Jacka found that the less healthy their diets, the smaller their left hippocampuses (the brain region linked with emotional regulation and mental health); the finding was more recently replicated in the Netherlands with 4,000 older adults.

Overall, Jacka has found that simply following a healthier diet – without other lifestyle modifications such as exercise, but taking into account things such as education, income, bodyweight and other health behaviours – results in a 30% reduced risk of depression.

That healthier diet may vary from country to country, but research has shown that, regardless of where you live, eating closer to a traditional, pre-industrial diet rich in plant foods, fish, unrefined grains and fermented foods, with less meat and highly palatable processed and snack foods, reduces your risk of depression. It could be the Mediterranean diet or Japanese cuisine rich in fish, seaweed, green tea and tofu, Jacka writes: “There’s not just one healthy way to eat.”

One unexpected finding of her PhD study, for example, was that cutting out red meat led to poorer mental health among the 1,000 participants. “We saw in our data a very clear pattern around too little or too much being problematic,” she says. “A tiny amount – three or four palm-sized servings [65-100g] a week – was associated with about half the probability of having a depressive or anxiety disorder. I suspect there’s probably individual variation in how much people need.” The need is probably greater in young women who are menstruating, adds Jacka (who does not eat red meat “for ethical reasons”).

Grain-fed beef (common in the US) is also less healthy than grass-fed beef, which is higher in the fatty acids that have been linked to improved mental health.

As for fish, eating it about three times a week is a component of many healthy diets – but there are unlikely to be extra benefits from eating more, Jacka writes. Fish-oil supplements can be helpful for some people with severe clinical depression, “but it’s definitely not a panacea for the wider population,” she says. “Have sardines on your toast, or some mackerel, mussels, or – if you can afford it – oysters.”

Jacka is the first to admit that we may never understand how individual ingredients of our diet combine to influence the brain: “The complexity of the human body is mind-boggling.” And because even the most beige western diet comprises countless individual chemicals invisibly interacting with each other, “we can’t even begin to measure all their effects”.

Cottage cheese, for example, is often trotted out as a mood-boosting food because it is rich in tryptophan, which is essential for creating serotonin, the “happy hormone”. If only nutrition were that simple. Scientists have failed to find any evidence that eating foods (or supplements) rich in tryptophan affects mental health, with other amino acids in foods restricting its journey from stomach to brain.

It is the trillions of micro-organisms such as bacteria and yeasts that live in our guts that help convert tryptophan into serotonin, and they can be encouraged by consuming fermented foods such as sauerkraut, kimchi and kefir, and fibre from many different plant sources. But, crucially, it is not enough just to eat well: you need to consume all the nutrients and fibre your body needs – and avoid significant consumption of refined and heavily processed foods. “People are eating all this stuff that’s toxic and detrimental to their brain health,” says Jacka. One reason to avoid high-sugar diets, for example, is that they lead to an increase in the same inflammation markers that are raised in people with depression.

The gut microbiome is also key to regulating inflammation. Recent animal studies have shown that depression can be transmitted through fecal microbial transplants (“It’s poo in a pill, or ‘crapsules’”); Jacka is currently investigating whether good mental health can be transmitted the same way.

However it might be achieved, she is convinced of the need to address what she sees as the current mental health “disaster”. Unlike most risk factors for depression (including genes, poverty, trauma and abuse), diet is something we can modify – yet only about 10% of the population eat an adequately healthy diet, says Jacka. “The fact that we’ve got something under our nose that could potentially address a good proportion of the burden of depression is really important.”

The elephant in the room is the global food industry. “Big Food has completely altered the food environment so that unhealthy foods are the cheapest, most ubiquitous, heavily marketed, [most] difficult to resist and socially acceptable – as a result, the [world’s] health has gone down the toilet.”

The lack of political will to address this reflects the size of the corporations involved. “It’s just so powerful and influential, bigger than the tobacco industry,” she says.

Is Jacka gearing up to be the Erin Brockovich figure who takes them on? “That would be my life’s dream.”

With half of all mental-health disorders setting in by age 14, the importance of diet is especially relevant to young people – but as in the UK and US, Australian teenagers are eating multiple servings of junk foods every day, says Jacka: “This is not an occasional biccie with your tea.”

Messages about obesity and health problems in a distant, abstract future do not seem to be influencing people’s eating behaviours, but they might act on the knowledge that these same foods could be making them unhappy, says Jacka. “It’s much more in your face: ‘It’s going to affect me now.’”

Brain Changer: The Good Mental Health Diet by Professor Felice Jacka is published by Pan Macmillan, Australia

Winter Foraging Workshop at Topsy Farm

Wild Foraged Pickings

Whenever I suggest Winter Foraging to people I always giggle at the response. No one thinks that there is any viable foods available in our Northern deep frost, but let me tell you, there is plenty. In this particular workshop I gathered up a handful of hearty people keen to experience what the Canadian Boreal forest has to offer. Outfitted with multiple layers of clothing and good rubber boots we made our way out onto the vast property of Topsy Farms to see what we could gather. http://www.topsyfarms.com

We startled a large flock of Starlings into a Murmuration that mesmerized us almost into forgetting our task. Such is the beauty of the property here, but we trudged onwards across the slippery March ice towards an area of the Farm called ‘Lighthouse Point’. Along this area are many Juniper trees. Wind whipping off of the water we talk about the difference between the two Juniper species. Juniper Communis is the common Juniper tree. The berries are smaller but easily harvested with paper bags. Putting the whole branch into the bag you can shake the winter dried berries off in one shot. While with the other species Juniper Horizontalis needs to painstakingly picked off one by one. The needles sharp, so I always use my garden gloves for protection. Both species grow their berries in cycles and require 3 summers to fully mature. Once matured (turning dark blue) you now have competition for this tasty treat. Deer love to nibble on these along with the green needles. Most times when you find the Creeping Juniper, most of the berries will have been eaten leaving you empty handed. However, if the shrub is well established, the center branches will still have berries that the deer cannot reach. The berries on the Common Juniper are much smaller ( half the size) then the creeping Juniper. I collect both when I can because the taste is much more concentrated in the smaller but the larger are excellent to use when cooking long cured meats like Corned Beef or Sauerbraten. The picture above shows both. I am a huge fan of all Juniper berries because of one very important fact that most people aren’t aware of. Juniper is an anti flatulent. That’s right folks…. it’s a fart buster. Eaten fresh off of the tree when they are fresh or dried later in the year, these berries can significantly reduce or flat out stop unwanted gas. In the ‘Now you know’ context… make sure you have a steady supply of juniper in your home for any of the social awkward farting situations. There are also many other medicinal attributes to Juniper we shouldn’t overlook. Juniper is a Analgesic, antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-rheumatic, Antiseptic, aromatic, carminative, diaphoretic, disinfectant and stimulant. So much for such a wee Berry.

We collect only what we need for the workshop purposes. Later at the farmhouse, we are making Juniper fermented Honey and a Juniper sourdough starter. Recipes and photos to follow.

We start walking deeper into the forest and away from the shoreline. The wind drops almost immediately after we are surrounded by thick underbrush with a high canopy. This part of the forest is 90% coniferous mixed with more common Juniper, Cedar and Pine. We start to follow a Deer path and discover, hidden amongst the Conifers is, a nice patchwork of Hickory trees. Every 20 yards we are surrounded by the feast the local chipmunks had of all the hickory nuts. We collect a few remaining with the thought of cracking them apart while looking at the ingenuity of the chipmunks and their tough little teeth.

Entering the Deciduous forest

Looking for Pine trees to harvest needles the deciduous forest offers up a small few red and white pine hidden amongst the Maple, Hickory and Oak. It’s almost insane the division between the two forests that hug each other. Walking out the coniferous forest we leave behind the thick undergrowth where one felt hugged by green. Our voices muffled by thick insulation. The obligatory dog (all walks must include a dog) starts barking at noises in the distance. I could only guess were some of the huge population of Deer living here. I miss some of the very Pine trees we were looking for as I start scanning the forest floor for Deer Antlers. Always shed at this time of year and always awesome to find. Thoughts of all the different projects I’d like to do start running through my head – Chandeliers, Pastry pedestals etc. When we’ve wandered through this forest aimlessly for a while, we finally spot our prize. A beautiful white Pine. So tall has it grown that we can’t reach the first branches to harvest. However, as luck would have it, Amherst Island is always the recipient of strong winds and we find freshly blown branches that are easily collected off the forest floor. We load up the collection basket and make our way back to the farmhouse for refreshments and tutorials on 3 recipes with our Winter forest finds.

White Pine needles being boiled in water to extract the oils

White Pine Cough Syrup

First up is the White Pine needles. Our intention is to make an Aboriginal Cough Syrup made with honey. It’s actually a seriously simple recipe. The needles need to be boiled to extract their oils. First we need to separate the needles from the branches and give everything a good rinse. We got a great amount so I choose a very large pot to use. in a 12 liter pot I filled 3 quarters of the way full of water. Then set the burner on high. Typically I boil until literally all the color is released from the needles. This takes about 2 hours at high boil. Once this is done I pull off 75% of the needles. Leaving the remaining in the same pot because the action of boiling pushes a lot of the resin on the side of the pot.

White Pine Cough Syrup

I want this to be included in the Syrup. Adding unfiltered honey that still included propolis (tree resin collected by bees that have antiseptic qualities that helps strengthen the immune system against bacteria, fungi and viruses ), I put one cup per liter into the boiled white pine water to finish our syrup. Put the pot back on high boil. Do NOT stir and let boil at high for 30 minutes. You’ll want the mixture to reach a temperature of 230 to 234 degrees F to achieve a syrup. Once cooled, you can bottle as you please. I never filter mine as I want all the extra resin from both the bees and the tree. It does mean you’ll have to give it a good shake before using.

Juniper Fermenting in Honey

Fermented Juniper Honey

What you need: Juniper Berries, Honey, Glass Jar & Cheesecloth

I love this process and have many different foods and herbs fermenting in honey. All over the house are buckets are varying degrees of fermentation with Hot peppers, wild garlic (from last year), high bush cranberries to anything else I can get my hands on. The very same honey I used for the syrup is used for this Juniper Fermentation. In itself its active because it’s unfiltered. However, with this recipe I add only the Juniper berries. Unwashed juniper berries have a ton of natural yeasts growing on them. Once I add a handful of berries, stirred in, I don’t add anything else like in the other fermentations. Those recipes I need to add an active ingredient and I have added anything from fermented Pear juice to fresh pineapple juice (because they ferment quickly on their own). You have to be patient when fermenting this way. Leaving a cheesecloth wrapped around the opening allows oxygen exchange and more wild yeasts to blend in. Stir container at least once a week for 6 to 8 weeks. Slowly you’ll find small bubbles rise to the top with each stir and the color of the honey taking on it’s host – this means it’s fermenting and the flavors are infusing. When I bottle the finished product – I stop the fermentation through hot bottling with a seal over 30 minutes boil in water. You’ll want to do this for culinary uses so your bottles don’t explode under the pressure. I mistake I made last summer in the high heat of August bottling a experiment. Glass and Liquid honey everywhere. Ugh! what a mess.

Cracking Juniper berries to add to our Sourdough Starter

Juniper Sour Dough Starter

What you need: Juniper Berries, water and Flour

Because Juniper Berries are so naturally high in wild yeasts this is a recipe that anyone can do. Next Workshop March 30th is on Sourdough baking and we will use this starter to make our bread. That Blog will follow after or you can join the class.

This is way easier then you’ll realize. I take the Juniper berries and crush them. Today I used my Hatchet (partly because I love my hatchet but in reality I couldn’t find my meat pounder and my mortar & pestle is buried in my moving boxes still) . It does point out the simple fact that you could literally use anything to accomplish the same end result and well… I always seem to have my hatchet handy. I mix them evenly into the dry flour then add well water. City water has too many chemicals in it that could stop the fermentation and distilled water is basically dead. Our well water on the island is sweet but heavy. A nice addition to our starter. I add enough water to make it into a pancake mixture consistency. then I cover with cheesecloth and let nature take its course. I check everyday for bubbles starting to form at the top of the mixture. Once this has happened I start to feed it everyday equal parts water and flour until it’s quadrupled in size. Then it’s ready for your first bake.

If the water separates before fermenting… that’s okay. Stir it in and keep checking on it. Timing on this depends on many factors. The warmth of the air in the room, the type of flour used (Milled flour direct from the farm is always the best – it’s always very active in itself). You can buy grains and mill them yourself or just buy organic flour from your local grocer. I’m going to suggest finding your closest Farmers Market to buy there. Always support local and your bread will taste better because of it.

If you’re interested in any of our future foraging events please email us at rcummings@wildfeastcatering.com to sign up or contact us with questions.

A Good Day is Always a Day in the Forest

Winter Foraging with Misty- the foraging Puppy